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School of Hospitality, Restaurant and Tourism Management

A RESEARCH PROPOSAL BY:

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I declare that the work I am submitting for assessment contains no section copied in whole or in part from any other source unless explicitly identified in quotation marks and with detailed, complete and accurate referencing. 

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TITLE: ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF GAMBLING IN LAS VEGAS

Table of Contents

1.                            Introduction. 3

1.1         The research problem.. 4

1.2       The purpose of the study. 5

1.3         The objectives of the study. 6

1.4         The research questions. 6

2.            LITERATURE REVIEW… 7

3.            THE PROPOSED METHODOLOGY.. 10

3.1         Research design. 10

3.2         Data sources and instrumentation. 11

3.3       Data collection techniques. 11

3.4         Issues of reliability and validity. 12

3.5         Sampling techniques. 13

3.6         Data analysis and interpretation. 14

4.            WORK PLAN.. 15

            References. 17

1.         Introduction

Gambling is the wagering of something with a material value or money on an occurrence with an unsure outcome with the chief intention of winning the money or the material thing. Therefore, for there to be gambling there must be the consideration, the chance, and the ultimate prize. The outcome is always immediate, although cases of longer periods for the outcome are also common. The immediate outcome may result from a roll of a dice, a spin of a roulette wheel or the outcome of a certain spot in the near future. Gambling is a major commercial activity throughout the world. There are cases of gambling that do not involve the use of money as a prize (Gale, 2015).

Many national and local authorities usually ban gambling intended for commercial purposes. Failure to which, the authorities impose heavy control on the business through calling for large amounts of money for licenses. Often, due to the illegal restrictions, the regulations lead to gambling tourism and illegal gambling in the areas where the act is highly prohibited. The involvement of the government in the gambling process through taxation leads to the provision of revenue to the governments (Thompson, 2010). However, the governments often regulate the odds of gaming by ensuring manufacturers do not make some high pay results through setting of low probabilities in the games.

 Industry statistics reveals that in 2006 of the about thirty million tourist who visited Las Vegas, 88% of them actively participated in gambling. In addition, the average gambler had a gambling budget of around $600 (Sehlinger, 2015). The gamblers were in age groups of 60 years and above. In addition, the visitors arranged with the hotels for her accommodation. On average, each of the tourists had four hours of gambling. It is estimated that throughout the globe the legal market adds an estimated $400billion in 2012 (Sehlinger, 2015). The legal gambling is a viable market through which to source for revenues.

1.1       The research problem

Gambling processes have dire consequences on the economy. Increasing acts would result in increasing revenues for the governments through levies collected as taxes and through licenses. The area would experience economic growth due to the establishment of supporting facilities such as banks and security firms.  In addition, the cases of social ills in the society would increase in the same value (Grinols, 2004).

Social ills such as prostitution, robbery with violence, security risks would increase accordingly.

Decreasing acts of gambling would result in decreasing revenue to the government, thereby stalling major projects, reduced revenues to the local people. In addition, it would render unemployment to the many people working in the gambling institutions, nearby hotels and increased cases of violent activities because of the loss of employment. In addition, reduced acts of gambling will render loss of many hours of man production.

1.2 The purpose of the study

The purpose of this study is to determine the economic impacts of the gambling in Las Vegas. From the study, the possible economic consequences of the gambling will be identified. The results of the study will help the stakeholders of the tourism industry to utilize the results in order to align their businesses to cater for the positive or negative impacts of the process.

From the results of the study, the government will be able to put up appropriate structures to allow free practice of legal gambling or prohibiting the illegal activities. The results of the study will also be of great benefit to the local community to embrace the act and appreciate it so that the process will align to the local economic stimulus of promoting an entrepreneurial culture

1.3       The objectives of the study

The main objective of the study is to identify the economic impacts of gambling in Las Vegas.

Underlying the main objective, the specific objectives are,

1. To identify the positive impacts of gambling in Las Vegas,

2. To identify the negative impacts of gambling in Las Vegas,

1.4       The research questions

The main research question for the study is what are the economic impacts of gambling in Las Vegas?

 Underlying the main research problem, the working research questions include,

What are the positive economic impacts of gambling in Las Vegas?

What are the negative economic impacts of gambling in Las Vegas?

 

2.         LITERATURE REVIEW

(Gale, 2015) established that gambling in Las Vegas has contributed to the increase in jobs among women and minority groups in areas where gambling takes place. The author establishes that tourism and cases of gambling positively result in an increase in jobs for the youth and women.

He notes that the need to put up support structures such as banks and other investments agencies, the construction of more buildings to accommodate the growing number of people who move to that area to participate often leads to employment of youth, women and minority groups in order o serve the clients. In addition, women benefits from the roles they take up in hotels such as cooking, washing and attending to clients. The increased activities around the casinos result directly to the jobs to the women (Marx, 1952).

 In addition, the casinos offer employment opportunities to the bouncers and other attendants in the casinos. The author notes that due to increased population around the casinos there is an increase in prostitution cases forcing young women into the vice. In addition, the major sectors of the economy that have been positively impacted into creation of jobs include the construction, the tourism, banking and financial sector and the hotel. In comparison, he argues that more people have entered into jobs as compared to the last three years. The increase in the availability of jobs to women is an attribute to the fact that casinos are not strict in the educational requirements.

According to (Meyer, 1998), the casino gambling in Las Vegas, creates better-paying jobs than other sectors. The research also found out that the casino industries have over eight thousand employees both men and women. In addition, the article quotes that the industry paid wages of up to $25 billion dollars. For the article, the wages paid exceed those people working in the video, cellular phones and soft drinks sectors. According to the author, the availability of the jobs, few logistics involved in setting up the companies are the main factor leading to the availability of better-paying jobs compared to other sectors.

According to (Grinols, 2004) many of the senior residents find casinos attractive and often visit them in search of fun and excitement. The casinos provide good areas where senior citizens can go to refresh their minds after long hours of daily work. In addition, the senior citizens find the casino attractive places where they can join with other friends to have extended talks on business and other matters of interest to them.

 In addition, the majority of the gamblers conceives gambling as a matter of excising personal freedom and that the act should be, legalized. In addition, the matter allows people to utilize their disposable income in search of more. The environments the casino also exists to allow the clients to make choices before engaging in the games. The gambling also engages the reveler’s mind and helps them develop problem-solving skills, especially for the games that involve immediate response. Therefore, the places provide good areas where people can engage their minds in pursuit of other skills. The reason senior citizen go the casinos as the author notes are not entirely in the making or increasing profits and that there are many things people get to learn.

(Thompson, 2010) establishes that casino gambling has negative impacts on the communities around. Incidences of crime increase rapidly in the area owing to availability of money. Gambling is associated with the emergence of gangs that usually trail the people and the tourist back to their hotels and or on their way attacking them in pursuit of money. In addition, the gambling casinos lead to the emergence of nightclubs and bars that see youthful women forced into the areas to acts as entertainers and sluts for the senior citizens.

In addition, casino gambling promotes a bad culture among the young people who take up the games to the schools. In so doing, the performance in class is gradually affected with majority of them performing poorly in their exams and class work. The presence of gambling casinos gives impression of an immoral society especially to the religions that believe that gambling is against the teachings of the holy books.

3.         THE PROPOSED METHODOLOGY

3.1       Research design

The research will purpose to find the descriptive explanation of the economic impacts of gambling in Las Vegas. Therefore, the research will assume a qualitative design as the data will not undergo statistical analysis. The results from the correspondents will form the basis through which the project will base conclusions.

3.2       Data sources and instrumentation

The questionnaires and interviews will form the basis of data collection in the project (Marx 1952). The development of questionnaires will cater for all the research questions in order to draw meaningful conclusions. 

The survey tool is the instrument for the study of the economic impacts of the gambling in Las Vegas

3.3 Data collection techniques

As stated above, data collection techniques will involve use of questionnaires and interviews.  Questionnaires administration will be to sample of people living around casinos. The questionnaires will be in structure as to allow the respondent to express their views on the impacts of the gambling casinos in the area. The respondents will have the benefit of entering the information regarding the impacts (Meyer, 1998).

Such questions will be,

Do you like the fact that there are gambling casinos in the area?

 How were things over here before the establishment of casinos?

Do you think the gambling casinos made considerable impacts in the area?

Would you describe the most prevalent impacts the casinos have brought in the area?

 State some of the benefits of the casinos in the area,

 State some of the negative impacts of the casinos in the area,

Would you want the establishment of more gambling casinos in the area?

If yes, state the reasons.

 The interview will involve a selected sample of people and those who have spent considerably long periods in order to conduct the interviews. The recording of the interviews will involve the use of tape recorders to ensure the information will be available at the latter stages of analysis of the findings. The interviews will also involve the administration officers to provide efficient information on the subject, especially on the notable changes that may have occurred because of the establishment of the gambling casinos.

3.4       Issues of reliability and validity

The data validity will involve consultation with the administrative departments in the area who will either agree with the results from the questionnaires and the interview. The data will be crosschecked with the data available at offices (Thompson, 2015). In addition, data will be crosscheck with that one available at the institutions such as casinos, banks recorded to identify if the data is authentic or is something to go by.

 In addition, the residents will have the opportunity to look at the data from other respondents and respond according on its validity in the area. Moreover, the data will be compared with other data collected by other people and organization to identify the key strengths and the weaknesses of the data collected.

3.5       Sampling techniques

The research will utilize the snowball sampling technique. In this case, the research will purpose to establish two people conversant with the subject matter and the two to serve as an introduction to other parties (Gale, 2015). Therefore, the technique will ensure that only useful information from the useful informants gets to act as the samples for which their information will be of much value to the research.

 The method will also serve as a good introduction to the other party so that they provide adequate and specific conditions to pass the set validation standard. In addition, the sampling method will enhance the level of accuracy in the data collected the responses of the parties involved in the interview process will be used in the final stage of drawing the results.

3.6       Data analysis and interpretation

The data analysis will involve going through the filled questions and establishing the major points highlighted by many respondents.  The analysis will involve the classification of the positive economic impacts of gambling separately from the negative economic impacts of gambling. The arrangement of points will be in order of the number of respondents, and the tallying of the same impacts conducted. The process will also apply to the negative impacts

Data from the interviews will involve transcription into hard copies to allow for the analysis. The same procedure as the above will take place to decode the data. The major points highlighted will take part in establishing the impacts of the gambling in Las Vegas will form the basis of interpretation of the data.

4.         WORK PLAN

  STEPS IN THE RESEARCH PLAN   DEADLINE
  Submission of the proposal    
  Design of a research plan    
  Gaining access/getting permission to work in a particular area/have access to data, etc.    
  Literature review    
  Defining of a universe, a sample frame, sampling OR setting up of selection criteria, etc.    
  Design and testing of questionnaire, if appropriate    
  Design of a final questionnaire/schedules, etc.    
  Interviews/posting of questionnaires, etc.    
  Editing of completed questionnaires, grouping and coding of data, entering data into a computer    
  Design and testing of a computer program    
  Raw tabulations/draft analysis of qualitative data    
  Analysis of data    
  Report up of findings    
  Presentation of final research product(s)    

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Gale. (2015). Gambling in America. Information Plus.

Grinols, E. L. (2004). Gambling in America: Costs and benefits. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Marx, H. L. (1952). Gambling in America. New York: H.W. Wilson.

Meyer-Arendt, K. J., & Hartmann, R. (1998). Casino gambling in America: Origins, trends, and impacts. New York: Cognizant Communication.

Sehlinger, B. (2015). The unofficial guide to Las Vegas 2015.

Thompson, W. N. (2010). The international encyclopedia of gambling. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO.

Please complete the following by ticking the appropriate box or writing a comment:

1. Did you select the best methods to allow you to answer your research question(s)?

Yes No Don’t Know
1 2 3

2. Did you fully describe your study population, sampling procedures and methods of data-gathering?

Yes No Don’t Know
1 2 3

3. Have you considered the problems of gaining access to your data sources?

Yes No Don’t Know
1 2 3

4. Do you need a letter of introduction (or a consent letter) from your study-leader(s)?

Yes No
1 2

5.  Will you have to design a data-gathering/recording tool (e.g., a questionnaire, an interview schedule, an observation checklist etc.)?

Yes No
1 2

6. Did you select and describe the most appropriate analysis procedures?

Yes No Don’t Know
1 2 3

7.  Will you need help with any analysis?

If “Yes” describe the type of help you’ll need If “No”, tell us why not  
  Guidance throughout the project period      

8. Have you considered the ethical implications of your study?

Yes No Don’t Know
1 2 3

9. What are the MAIN problems you foresee in successfully completing this study?

The main problem will be gathering of adequate data and the co-operation from the all stakeholders.

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